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Hymn A hymn is a type of song religious written for the purpose of adoration or prayer, addressed to a deity or deities, or to a prominent figure or personification. A writer of hymns is known as a hymnodist ; the singing or composition of hymns is called hymnody.

Collections of hymns are known as hymnals or hymn books. Hymns may not include instrumental accompaniment. Although most familiar to speakers of English in the context of Christianity , hymns are a fixture of other world religions on the Indian subcontinent. Hymns survive from antiquity from Egyptian and Greek cultures; some of the oldest surviving examples of notated music are hymns with Greek texts. Ancient hymns include the Egyptian Great Hymn to the Aten , composed by Pharaoh Akhenaten ; the Western tradition of hymnody begins with the Homeric Hymns , a collection of ancient Greek hymns, the oldest of which were written in the 7th century BC, praising deities of the ancient Greek religions.

Surviving from the 3rd century BC is a collection of six literary hymns by the Alexandrian poet Callimachus. Modeled on the Book of Psalms and other poetic passages in the Scriptures, Christian hymns are directed as praise to the Christian God. Many refer to Jesus Christ either indirectly. Since the earliest times, Christians have sung "psalms and hymns and spiritual songs ", both in private devotions and in corporate worship. One definition of a hymn is " It should be simple and metrical in form, genuinely emotional and literary in style, spiritual in quality, in its ideas so direct and so apparent as to unify a congregation while singing it.

Others are used to encourage reverence for the Bible or to celebrate Christian practices such as the eucharist or baptism. Some hymns praise or address individual saints the Blessed Virgin Mary. A writer of hymns is known as a hymnodist, the practice of singing hymns is called hymnody.

History, Reform, and Continuity in the Hymns of the Roman Breviary

A collection of hymns is called a hymnary; these may not include music. A student of hymnody is called a hymnologist , the scholarly study of hymns and hymnody is hymnology; the music to which a hymn may be sung is a hymn tune. In many Evangelical churches, traditional songs are classified as hymns while more contemporary worship songs are not considered hymns; the reason for this distinction is unclear, but according to some it is due to the radical shift of style and devotional thinking that began with the Jesus movement and Jesus music.

Of note, in recent years, Christian traditional hymns have seen a revival in some churches more Reformed or Calvinistic in nature, as modern hymn writers such as Keith and Kristyn Getty and Sovereign Grace Music have reset old lyrics to new melodies, revised old hymns and republished them, or written a song in accordance with Christian hymn standards such as the hymn, In Christ Alone. In ancient and medieval times, string instruments such as the harp and lute were used with psalms and hymns.

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Since there is a lack of musical notation in early writings, the actual musical forms in the early church can only be surmised. During the Middle Ages a rich hymnody developed in the form of Gregorian plainsong ; this type was sung in unison , in one of eight church modes , most by monastic choirs. While they were written in Latin, many have been translated. Hymnody in the Western church introduced four-part vocal harmony as the norm, adopting major and minor keys, came to be led by organ and choir, it shares many elements with classical music.

Today, except for choirs, more musically inclined congregations and a cappella congregations, hymns are sung in unison. In some cases complementary full settings for organ are published, in others organists and other accompanists are expected to transcribe the four-part vocal score for their instrument of choice. To illustrate Protestant usage, in the traditional services and liturgies of the Methodist churches, which are based upon Anglican practice, hymns are sung during the processional to the altar, during the receiving of communion, during the recessional , sometimes at other points during the service.

He was a Roman nobleman who had served under eight popes, been made Cardinal-Deacon of St. There were two sisters.

How to Pray the Daily Office.

His career shows no indication that he was a theologian , he never became a priest, until he became pope in After spending the summer in Genoa and Brescia , they reached Perugia in November , where the Papal Court resided continuously until April In May they went on pilgrimage to Assisi visited Anagni , where the Court stayed from June until the second week in October, when they went off in pursuit of Manfred, the claimant to the Hohenstaufen imperial crown. At the beginning of December, the Battle of Foggia took place, the papal army was routed.

Innocent IV died in Naples , where he had taken refuge, on 7 December , the meeting to elect his successor was therefore held in Naples in the palace in which he had died. Voting began on Friday, 11 December, with ten of the twelve cardinals present, but no candidate received the required votes, but on Saturday, 12 December, Cardinal Rinaldo dei Conti di Segni , the nephew of Pope Gregory IX , who had a reputation of a conciliator, was elected pope.

He chose to be called Alexander IV and was crowned on Sunday, December 20, , in the Cathedral of Naples ; as for Cardinal Giovanni Gaetano Orsini, in his first eleven and a half years as a cardinal, he had only spent six months in the city of Rome. A peripatetic Curia had its disadvantages.

Pope Alexander IV and the Curia continued to live in Naples, until the first week of June when they returned to Anagni, it was not until mid-November that the Pope was back in Rome. There the Curia stayed until the end of May, , when it was off to Anagni for the summer, until the beginning of December; the problem was that Rome was in the hands of Senator Brancaleone degli Andalo , Count of Casalecchio, since , the Ghibbelines and Alexander was driven out by unruly mobs. Rome was home again until the end of , until the summer vacation at Viterbo began; the vacation lasted until the end of , when the Court visited Anagni again.

The Pope was able to reside at the Lateran until the first week of May, , when the Court was off to Viterbo again.

Alexander IV died at Viterbo on 25 May A total of nineteen months was spent in Rome , out of a total of seventy-eight months. Alexander had created no new cardinals, so the Electoral meeting following his death had only eight participants. The Election was a long-drawn-out one, lasting from 25 May to 29 August Cardinal Orsini attended the first Conclave of , was one of the cardinals who signed the letter of complaint against the authorities and people of Viterbo for their treatment of the cardinals and the Curia, he was one of the six cardinals who were chosen by the rest of the Sacred College on September 1, , to select a compromise candidate for election as pope.

He was not one of the cardinals in the suite of Pope Gregory X w.

The Roman Breviary: in English, in Order, Every Day for November & December 2014

The term is used among Anglo-Catholic Anglicans. Although in modern English the word "pontifical" is exclusively associated with the Pope, any bishop may be properly called a pontiff.

How to Pray the Liturgy of the Hours

Thus, the celebrant of a Pontifical High Mass may be any bishop, not just a pope. In the early Church, Mass was celebrated by the bishop, with other clergy. In the Roman Rite this evolved into a form of Solemn High Mass celebrated by a bishop accompanied by a deacon , assistant deacons, thurifer and other ministers, under the guidance of a priest acting as Master of Ceremonies. Most the specific parts assigned to deacon and subdeacon are performed by priests; the parts to be said aloud are all chanted, except that the Prayers at the Foot of the Altar, which before the reform of Pope Pius V were said in the sacristy or during the entrance procession, were said by the bishop with the deacon and the subdeacon, while the choir sang the Introit.

The full Pontifical High Mass is carried out when the bishop celebrates the Mass at the throne in his own cathedral church, or with permission at the throne in another diocese.

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A Low Mass celebrated by a bishop is identical with one celebrated by a priest, except that the bishop puts on the maniple only after the Prayers at the Foot of the Altar, uses the greeting "Peace be with you" rather than the priest or deacon's "The Lord be with you", makes the sign of the cross three times at the final blessing, which may be preceded by a formula that begins with "Sit nomen Domini benedictum ". In contrast to celebration by a priest, a bishop celebrates the entire first half of the Solemn High Mass until the offertory at the cathedra referred to as his throne, to the left of the altar.

Instead of saying Dominus vobiscum "The Lord be with you" as the opening liturgical greeting, a bishop says Pax vobis "Peace to you". A bishop wears vestments additional to those of a priest: The dalmatic , the distinctive vestment of a deacon, worn under the bishop's chasuble to show that he has the full powers of the sacrament of Holy Orders The tunicle , the particular vestment of the subdeacon, worn under the bishop's dalmatic, further to show the fullness of the major orders.

Since the 19th century it looks exactly the same as the dalmatic The mitre , the bishop's headdress The crosier , the bishop's hooked staff Episcopal buskins along with episcopal sandals a specially decorated form of footwear , in the shape of slippers A pectoral cross Liturgical gloves A metropolitan archbishop, celebrating Mass within the area of his province over which he has jurisdiction, wears a pallium over the chasuble, as a sign of the special authority over the suffragan bishops, granted by the Pope.

The metropolitan archbishop does not need the permission of one of his suffragan bishops to celebrate Mass in one of the suffragan's churches or the cathedral, but he will do so as a sign of respect; when the bishop sits at the cathedra, a special silk cloth, called a gremial, of the same liturgical colour as the bishop's vestments is placed in his lap.

The Pope's Pontifical High Mass, when celebrated with full solemnity, was more elaborate; as is still done in papal Masses on occasions such as the inauguration of a pontificate, the Gospel and Epistle were sung not only in Latin by a Latin-Rite deacon and subdeacon, but in Greek by Eastern clergy, wearing the vestments of their own rite and observing its customs, such as placing the deacon's stole on the Gospel Book and bowing rather than genuflecting. This custom stresses the unity of the universal Catholic Church , formed by both the Eastern and the Western Churches in full communion.

At the elevations of host and chalice , the Silveri symphony was played on the trumpets of the no longer existing Noble Guard. Through a misunderstanding of the name Silveri, English speakers sometimes referred to this as the sounding of silver trumpets. An asterisk — a common eucharistic implement in the Eastern Rites , in which it is shaped differently from the twelve-ray asterisk, used in Papal Masses - was used to cover the host on the paten , when it was brought to the Pope at his throne for communion; the Pope drank the Precious Blood.

For the laity , the use of a tube is one of the four ways envisaged in the revision of the Roman Missal for receiving Communion from the chalice, cf. General Instruction of the Roman Missal , , it was customary for some of the bread and wine used at the Mass to be consumed by the sacristan and the cup-bearer in the presence of the Pope at the offertory and again before the Our Father in a short ceremony called the praegustatio as a precaution against poison or invalid matter. In the Anglo-Catholic tradition of Anglicanism , the term Pontifical High Mass may refer to a Mass celebrated with the traditional Tridentine ceremonies described above.

Liturgical manuals such as Ritual Notes provide a framework for incorporating Tridentine ceremonial into the services of the Book of Common Prayer.

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More the term may refer to any High Mass celebrated by a bishop in the presence of his or her throne; the Pontifical High Mass is one of four full-form pontifical functions, the other three being pontifical Evensong , High Mass in the presence of a greater prelate , Solemn Evensong in the presence of a greater prelate. In its more traditional form, the ministers required at the service are a deacon and subdeacon of the Mass, assistant deacons in dalmatics.

Liturgical book A liturgical book , or service book, is a book published by the authority of a church body that contains the text and directions for the liturgy of its official religious services.

In the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church , the primary liturgical books are the Roman Missal , which contains the texts of the Mass, the Roman Breviary , which contains the text of the Liturgy of the Hours. With the reform of the Roman Missal by Pope Paul VI , now called the "Ordinary Use of the Roman Rite", the Scriptual readings were expanded requiring a separate book, known as the Lectionary ; the Roman Ritual contains the texts of the sacraments other than the Mass, such as baptism , the sacrament of penance , the anointing of the sick , the sacrament of marriage.