The concepts are explained systematically, with basic principles leading to more elaborate issues of theory. The book uses a language that avoids technical terms; and does not take for granted any previous knowledge of the field.
Key Ideas in Linguistics and the Philosophy of Language
Some background in basic linguistics is assumed, but even here the more complex notions are glossed where possible. The concepts Psycholinguistics is a domain with fuzzy boundaries; and there is some disagreement among those who teach it as to how widely they should set their sights. A broad view of the discipline might embrace all of the following: a.
Language processing: including the language skills of reading, writing, speaking and listening and the part played by memory in language. Lexical storage and retrieval: how we store words in our minds and how we find them when we need them. Language acquisition: how an infant acquires its first language. Special circumstances: the effects upon language of e.
Language, Media and Culture : The Key Concepts (Routledge Key Guides) [Paperback]
The brain and language: where language is located in the brain, how it evolved and whether it is a faculty that is unique to human beings. Second language acquisition and use. Many courses in Psycholinguistics choose to omit f. The study of Second Language Acquisition has developed independently, embraces sociological and pedagogical factors as well as cognitive ones; and employs a more eclectic range of research methods than Cognitive Psychology would normally accept. In addition, some courses prefer to omit c, for the very different reason that it is a large area of study in its own right. It was thus by no means a foregone conclusion which concepts were to be included in this volume.
However, most introductory courses in Psycholinguistics pay some heed to first language acquisition as well as to language performance. Furthermore, the two areas are closely linked, with findings from the former inevitably influencing our understanding of the latter. It therefore seemed sensible to ensure that all of areas a to e above were adequately covered. The same coverage has not been extended to Second Language Acquisition, where entries are restricted to those notions which have clear links to mainstream psycholinguistic theory.
Strenuous attempts have been made to ensure that the range of concepts featured is as comprehensive as possible.
It was expanded by taking account of less central areas, cross-checking with glossaries in standard handbooks and recalling areas that the author found problematic when himself a student. However, any reference work such as this can never satisfy everyone. There will inevitably be complaints that some issues have been overlooked and reservations about others that have been featured. Since the whole purpose of the book is to plug gaps in knowledge, the author would be very grateful for any feedback that the reader cares to provide.
Suggestions and comments from those who teach the subject would be especially welcome. Accessing a concept Psycholinguistics: The Key Concepts contains entries, plus a number of cross-referenced terms. Some of the entries are short definitions or explanations consisting of only a few lines. But the book is an exploration of key notions rather than a dictionary, and many of the concepts are discussed as part of larger topics.
The best way of checking understanding of a particular idea or issue is therefore to make use of the index at the end of the book.
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It lists the technical and semi-technical terms which are likely to cause problems for the student of Psycholinguistics, and provides references to the entries under which they appear. The text for each entry provides a summary of principal issues and areas of controversy. Important technical terms are highlighted.
They are chiefly shown in italics, but appear in bold where there is a full entry elsewhere for the term in question. For those who wish to study a concept in greater depth, there are suggestions for further reading. Choosing this recommended reading was something of a headache. So far as possible, the suggested sources needed to be those that a non- specialist would find easily comprehensible, and those which a student could obtain through a good library. As a result, most recommenda- tions are secondary sources and most are books.
On the other hand, a guide such as this needs at times to specify primary sources — for example, where a given theory or finding is closely associated with a particular researcher. A rule of thumb is: where the reference is to a book, it is likely to be accessible; where it is to a paper in a journal, it may be less so. A bibliography at the end of the book lists all the suggestions given for further reading, and includes references which occur within entries.
To assist the reader who is new to the field, it also recommends several titles which provide uncomplicated introductions to various aspects of Psycholinguistics. My own Psycholinguistics Routledge, offers a basic introductory course.
Writing any book is a lonely task, and I have lived with this one for some 18 months. I owe a great debt to my long-suffering friends for tolerating my frequent disappearances from view and for continuing to show curiosity about what must sometimes have appeared a sterile academic paperchase. I am very grateful to colleagues from the University of Leeds for their support and interest and to John Williams of the University of Cambridge for some stimulating discussions.
Particular thanks go to those who commented on entries, including Philida Schellekens and three anonymous reviewers, and to Anne Cutler for ideas on possible topics. I would especially like to express my appreciation to Louisa Semlyen and Christy Kirkpatrick at Routledge, who conceived the idea of this project and kept faith with it throughout what has been a long gestation period.
At a time when Psycholinguistics is sometimes undervalued or misrepresented, it was heartening indeed to encounter such belief in what the subject has to offer. Segment2 VB. With written language, the notion of an access code is especially associated with search models. These assume that the words in our minds are grouped in sets rather like dictionaries.
Such a search would be cumbersome when a set consisted of all the words beginning with a prefix such as PRE- or UN-. In the case of prefixed words, the prefix is stripped off before any lexical search takes place.
However, the BOSS hypothesis faces serious problems in accounting for pseudo-affixes Does one have to strip off dis- in dismay? With speech, one theory holds that it is the stressed syllables in English that trigger a word search. This again overcomes the problem of prefixes of high frequency and low saliency. However, there is also evidence that, during the search, the access code does not distinguish between stressed and unstressed syllables. These modifications are optional; the consequence is that the same word may be said in different ways in different contexts.
This raises difficult questions in relation to listening: if words are so variable in connected speech, how does the listener manage to recognise them — especially when the modifications involve word beginnings and endings? A speaker in a conversation might use particular words or syntactic patterns which their interlocutor has recently used. Accommodation theory explores the way speakers adjust their accent and speech style towards that of their interlocutor convergence as a sign of solidarity, or away from it divergence as a sign of social distance.
Factors here include the modality writing vs speaking and the formality of the speech event. Allocating extra attention to accuracy may affect language performance adversely by 1 slowing down the production of speech and thus reducing fluency or 2 giving rise to language anxiety, with the ironic consequence that accuracy declines instead of increasing.
See also: Anxiety, Fluency assimilation green paint! ACOUSTIC CUE One of a set of features, physically present in the speech stream, which enable a listener to recognise the presence of a particular phoneme, syllable or word or to determine where a word, phrase or sentence boundary lies. The term is used for infants acquiring their native language first language acquisition and for those learning a second or foreign language second language acquisition. In this general sense, it is unproblematic; but researchers run into trouble when they apply the term to the mastery of a specific syntactic structure or lexical item.
However, this fails to consider the relative gravity of the errors in the remaining 10 per cent, or instances of avoidance, where the speaker substitutes another word or grammatical form in order to avoid using the most appropriate one. Nor does it take account of:. U-shaped development, where the learner appears to have acquired a particular grammatical form, but later begins to make errors again;.https://schilanacwikun.tk
Linguistics - Wikipedia
A language user especially a second language learner may appear to have acquired a form while undertaking a relatively simple language task, but may not produce the form consistently in relation to a more challenging task. The theory envisages two major components of long-term memory LTM.
Declarative memory contains factual and conceptual knowledge while production memory contains sets of production rules which specify how processes are to be carried out. Both supply working memory. A learning experience begins with pieces of declarative information which are relevant to the goals of a task: for example, the knowledge of what steps to take when starting a car. Declarative knowledge has to be employed step-by-step in order to achieve a goal.
However, this makes heavy demands upon working memory. Some of the steps become combined through a process of composition. Through another process known as proceduralisation, the learner comes to recognise the relevance of a particular piece of knowledge to a specific situation. Thus, instead of having to retrieve several pieces of information, a single automatic choice is made. At this stage, errors can occur when rules become over-generalised. However, the operation gradually turns abstract knowledge into a set of procedures which form the basis for production memory.
Continuing the car example, the result is that the driver manages to start the car without having to focus attention upon individual steps.